The four specific areas, through which the prime areas are applied and strengthened are: literacy, mathematics, understanding the world and expressive arts and design. They include essential skills and knowledge. They grow out of the prime areas and provide important contexts for learning. (Revised EYFS, March 2014).
Literacy development involves encouraging children to link sounds and letters and to begin to read and write. Children must be given access to a wide range of reading materials (books, poems, and other written materials) to ignite their interest. (Revised EYFS, March 2014)
Mathematics involves providing children with opportunities to develop and improve their skills in counting, understanding and using numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems; and to describe shapes, spaces and measures. (Revised EYFS, March 2014)
Understanding the world involves guiding children to make sense of their physical world and their community through opportunities to explore, observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment. (Revised EYFS, March 2014)
Expressive arts and design involves enabling children to explore and play with a wide range of media and materials, as well as providing opportunities and encouragement for sharing their thoughts, ideas and feelings through a variety of activities in art, music, movement, dance, role-play, and design and technology. (Revised EYFS, March 2014)